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Insurance in France
In the 17th century in the south of France associations started meeting mandatory involvement in it, receiving from the members solid contributions and compensating to them an overall cost of losses from a robbery or theft; this organization existed till 1789 (before Great French Revolution).
After sea insurance there was also an insurance upon fire. The enormous fire in London in 1666 gave the strong impetus to development on the commercial beginnings of this type of insurance.
Further receives the origin and development insurance upon a hail, a murrain, overland transport and so forth types of property insurance.
After many types of property insurance there is a life insurance.
At the end of the Middle Ages big development was gained by bets concerning life of individuals (emperors, fathers, politicians, etc.). In case of customs dominating in those days quite often interested persons didn't stop before murder of the person on which life such insurance bet consisted, resorting to the help of the hitman or to poison. Fight of the government against such insurance bets led to an otgranicheniye of transactions legal in which base insurance interest (insurance contracts), from transactions unlawful in which base of such insurance interest wasn't (insurance bets) lay.
Big distribution in the XVI century was gained by the rents, consisting that individuals transferred to any establishment, for example, to the monastery, the known amount of money, receiving in exchange from this establishment for life a certain annual income.
Known value in origin of life insurance had and тонтины, obliged by the origin and a name to Italian Tonti (the XVII century).
In 17в. On the earth of France the idea of the Venetian doctor by the name of Tonti, running from Italy to Paris where its appearance played the significant role not only in financial life of France, but also in the history of insurance generally was implemented.
Finance of France was at that time in a sorry plight. Tonti suggested to let out the state loan. Participants shared on ten groups. Everyone subscribed, and 300 livres. What worried remaining in the group, became successors of the dead. Tontina, by name the author, was redistributed. Thus, in each group there could be one person inheriting all amount. Tontina were pleasant, but existed not long. Them condemned church and many sane people.
Tonti is considered the father of life insurance therefore hundred it entered reviving gradation into insurance, and the homeland of this type of insurance is England. There in 1699 there was a professional organization which began to be engaged at first in insurance of widows and orphans, and later some tens years the insurance company was organized. From history which the history life insurance begins.
On the continent of Europe and in America the insurance companies of life arose only in the XIX century. From the second half of the XIX century the state life insurance (France, Belgium, England, Japan, etc.) develops. There is the so-called national insurance pursuing the aims of distribution of insurance among wide circles of the needy population on the simplified and privileged bases (England, the United States, Germany, etc.).
Rapid growth of the industry and transport, so characteristic for the second half of the XIX century, generated a row of the constant centers of the increased danger (plants, the railroads, etc.) and caused after this a new type of insurance - insurance upon accidents.
Development belongs to the XIX century and the reinsurance, representing itself transmission by the insurer of insurance risks to other insurance establishment.
The XX century gives rise to a new type of insurance - insurance of aviation risks.
Remarkable line of development of the French market of insurance extremely its rapid growth during the post-war period: from the middle of the 50th prior to the beginning of the 80th its turn I increased by 25 times, whereas country gross domestic product by 15 times. In France, unlike the homeland of insurance of Great Britain, industrial groups practically didn't participate in insurance companies. Shareholders of insurance companies are local and foreign banking and financial institutions, individuals, the state. In turn, insurance companies participate in the capital of banking groups, promoting stranding of insurance and banking business.
In 1983-1984 in connection with implementation of the regular commercial starts of artificial satellites by means of the Ariane rocket the new branch of insurance - insurance of space risks was created. For increase in market capacity in 1983 the insurance pool of space risks was founded. The French market of reinsurance takes the 5th place in a pattern.
Structure of the insurance market
In recent years in structure of the insurance market of France the next moments are marked:
- interference of the state which, since 1987 privatized existing national associations (MGF, UAP, AGF)
- prompt growth of the insurance provided to banks, - at first in life insurance, then and in other branches; so banks from now on dominate in the insurance market of France and on its own behalf sell a full range of insurance services
- appearance of associations of a mutual insurance which develop generally due to repayment of the enterprises as in France, and abroad; then activation of activities second-large (after the Japanese insurer of Nippon Life) groups of global insurers is the AXA which has redeemed AGF; after that AXA in 1996 integrated with UAP.
The legislation which regulates insurance matter in France is consolidated in the Insurance code which integrates all set of acts concerning insurance. The French insurance code provides mandatory division of life insurance and insurance of other types of risks on separate societies.
Application to the Insurance Code contains the list of the types of insurance which are mandatory owing to all of operating acts of France, in number of about 100 types which can be grouped in 10 main directions of mandatory insurance:
1 . automobile insurance,
2 . transport insurance,
3 . medical insurance,
4 . insurance of premises and construction,
5 . insurance of risks of sporting, cultural, mass entertaining events,
6 . insurance of the risks connected to education, training and operation,
7 . risks of industrial, agricultural, economic, financial activity,
8 . different types of professional responsibility,
9 . insurance of certain categories of natural persons,
10 . insurance of certain categories of the material objects.
And the majority of these types is defined by the relevant ministries and departments. So, for example: the tenant shall show when hiring the policy of assurance of a civil liability before the third parties; the child won't be taken in kindergarten if don't insure responsibility for its actions; in construction the builder is obliged to insure the responsibility for quality of the performed works for ten subsequent years, etc.
Long time the French market included three more or sectors are equal to exchange:
· the national associations, formed a field of nationalization of 1947 and integrated in 1968 in four groups: The union of insurers of Paris, general insurance in France, Group of national insurance associations and Mutual general insurance of France.
· Joint-stock companies of the private sector
· the societies of a mutual insurance selling the services directly or by means of intermediaries, whose presence became characteristic in the insurance market
The standard classification of branches of insurance is such as:
1 . The general insurance, - in which enters insurance of property and responsibility insurance. In turn, for example, responsibility insurance, shares on insurance civil, professional, personal and even family responsibility. All branch "General insurance" submits to the so-called indemnitarny principle of compensation of damage according to which the amount, is paid by the insurer to the insurer as a result of a loss occurrence, shan't exceed the real damage suffered by the insurer.
2 . Personal insurance - here belongs life insurance and "personal insurance upon accidents and medical insurance". "Personal insurance" submits to the principle of compensation of damage based on in advance solid fixed amounts.
The general classification this in the Uniform insurance code and the relevant 25 branches of insurance, enveloping practically all types of contracts and insurance coverings:
· Medical insurance
· Insurance of the casing of mechanical vehicles
· Insurance of the casing of river vehicles
· Insurance of the casing of air means
· Insurance of the casing of sea vehicles
· Insurance of transported goods
· Fire insurance
· The other damage caused to property (insurance upon other risks)
· Insurance of a civil liability of overland vehicles
· Insurance of a civil liability of air vehicles
· Insurance of a civil liability of sea and river vehicles
· Shared civil liability
· Insurance of the credits
· Pledge insurance
· Insurance of other monetary losses
· Warranty of legal protection
· Life insurance (on survival)
· Insurance of a row of the private risks connected to a family, institute of spoilage and birth rate
· Insurance of investments
· Insurance of savings
· Insurance and control of collective funds of savings
· Collective insurance
Types of insurance
1. Property insurance
Among property types of insurance the following is most often applied:
· insurance of loads
· insurance of vessels (sea CASCO)
· insurance of aircrafts
· insurance of cars
· insurance of the export credits
· insurance of losses upon breaks of production or business activity
· insurance of the property which is abroad, upon fire and other dangers
· insurance of property of nonresidents upon fire and other dangers
· other types of property insurance
Since September 9, 1986 by law all contracts of property insurance without fail include damage insurance as a result of acts of terrorism in France. Key link of this system is the Warranty fund of victims of acts of terrorism and crimes against the personality, a basis of the budget of which mandatory assignments in the amount of 3,30 euros from each contract of insurance of property make.
2. Personal insurance
Accumulative insurance - one of the most convenient and reliable methods of long-term investment. Life insurance is among the major types in system of personal insurance and takes a specific place. In it process of support the insurance is successfully combined accumulation of money of citizens are hardwired also. One of basic features of life insurance is its long-term character (till 40 years and for life). Huge popularity of accumulative life insurance is explained by opportunity to accumulate large sums. In the West long-term accumulative life insurance is means of accumulation of strategic accumulation of citizens.
Long-term accumulative life insurance the most widespread type of insurance in Western. In France on insurance policies, and first of all on policies of accumulative insurance to have 20% of all financial assets of the population and 10% of their summary property property.
World Health Organization, having carefully analyzed system of medical attendance of 191 countries, I gave a palm of France. Such criteria, as efficiency, accessibility, compliance to needs of the population were thus considered. In France the best hospitals, the most competent physicians, the most up-to-date equipment and, besides, to all this have access representatives of all segments of the population.
Mandatory medical insurance in France enveloped 80% of citizens. French deduct a certain part of the salary on medical insurance (more correct, only the third part of a contribution becomes covered at the expense of the citizens, two thirds - at the expense of employers).
Medical insurance in France exists not in itself, and is part of social insurance of Securite Sociale. Everything who works, receive a social insurance with its mandatory attribute - an insurance card of Carte Vitale which provides insured and to members of his family access to medical service without additional payment. If in a family two persons work, everyone has the insurance card, children register in one of which.
How the health insurance "works"? If there was an accident on operation, medical insurance covers 100% of expenditures for treatment if the illness became the reason of an indisposition, - 75%.
In need of hospitalization the hospital cash register will pay 33 days of stay in hospital, remaining days the patient pays independently. Treatment duration is more than two months a reason for hospitalization in free hospital. If the state of health of the patient doesn't improve for three years, set disability. In France two groups of disability are provided: the first when the patient can't service himself, the second - remaining statuses in connection with an illness. It is necessary to mark that the hospital cash register pays 75% of cost of stay in the hospital, the remained amount is granted by the patient. Visit of the doctor, medicines, diagnostic survey are paid for such principle.
Medical attendance in France the paid. Payment of medical attendance in France is carried out through the insurance companies called by "cash registers". At each operating Frenchman a certain percent of a salary that further it was possible to pay medical attendance is removed and to return the cost of drugs. Even receiving pension, the Frenchman continues to pay in "cash registers". If the person gets sick and needs hospitalization, 33 days of stay in hospital are paid by "cash register". All rest of the time of the patient shall pay from the pocket. If the illness lasts more than 60 days, the person is transferred to free hospitals. If this status proceeds 3 years, the person receives disability. In France there are two groups of disability: the 1st group when the person can't service himself; the 2nd - all remaining. In case of each hospital there is a policlinic for outpatients. For officially recognized poor there are free policlinics. Drugstores in France are designated by a green cross and a text in French. The operating time of drugstores everywhere a miscellaneous, but the majority works from 9.00 till 20.00. The list of drugstores on duty is hung out on a door of each drugstore.
How the system of compensating of payments works? For example, upon medicine purchase in one drugstores the patient pays his overall cost. Within five days into the account of the insured the amount in the amount of 75% of cost of a preparation will be transferred. Other drugstores as "a weather vane on a wind", quickly react to spirits of the times and create more comfortable conditions for the patient. Namely insured pays not an overall cost with further compensating, but only "the" 25%. Then the hospital cash register transfers to a drugstore the missing amount. Patients directly, "without departing from cash register" feel care of insurance companies. And money "almost everything" on a place.
Days of absence on the operation, confirmed with the sick-list (arret de travail), are paid. In this case not accounts department in an operation place, and hospital cash register. Hospital cash register pays a salary for the entire period of action of the sick-list, instead of the employer.
In France in system of medical insurance some psychological aspects are considered. The involvement of the most insured in the course of compensation of money guards from excessive desire to undergo treatment. French aren't interested to pay once again from own pocket. The share in payment - a restraining factor for the patient.
As for voluntary medical insurance, now more and more the French employers include it in a social packet. If the employer cares about health of the subordinates, the status of the company is considered very high. Voluntary medical insurance is not only service in good clinics, but also a solution of the problem of monetary payments for medical services. In the presence of a private insurance the patient already pays nothing. The part of cost of treatment or drugs is paid due to mandatory medical insurance (75%), remaining (25%) - at the expense of voluntary. The patient needs to use services only. Along with high quality of service voluntary medical insurance offers supplementary medical services. Any hospital cash register won't refund expenditures on acquisition of contact lenses or points with plastic lenses, and compensates part of expenditures on points, but on the simplest. The desire of the patient to wear something belongs to category of unreasonable expenditures better. Private insurance companies can pay the cost of lenses. Everything depends on the insurance plan if this point is included in the list of medical services.
One of the most significant directions of reform of medical insurance - introduction of institute of the attending physician. Each inhabitant of the country voluntarily will be able to select the doctor who will give primary help, to acquaint the patient with existing methods of treatment, to make recommendations about further tactics of treatment, including to define need of additional consultations at specialists doctors. At the patient the right to address to any expert directly will remain, without resorting to services of the attending physician, however thus the compensation level of expenditures of the patient on consultation will be 5-10% lower, and the cost of consultation will increase with 25 to 32 euros. Besides, in this case for doctors opportunity to increase the rate of medical services set by the law at the rate to 30% of their fee is provided. To a row of experts (pediatricians, ophthalmologists, gynecologists) according to separate indications "specific access", releasing patients will be guaranteed against the mentioned sanctions. This measure, as expected, will promote improvement of quality of medical care due to the best orientation of the patient in information on existing types of diagnostics and treatment, and also will allow to cut down considerably expenses on not reasonable consultations and researches. Cash registers of mandatory medical insurance deliver insured by mail lists of doctors for a choice, the attending physician. It is predicted that in this role in most cases there will be general practitioners, and specialists doctors will be selected mainly by patients with chronic diseases (diabetes, asthma, etc.) . Thus insured has the right at any time to change the attending physician. According to recent data, from 40 million inhabitants of France having a social insurance, about 2 million already made the choice.
In France one of the most difficult systems of pension insurance in Europe. French generally retire at the age of 60 years (both men, and women). However there are separate categories of workers for which the retirement age is much lower (for example, miners). The French pension system is based on two fundamental principles:- Pension accumulative insurance: the pension in this case is paid from the means postponed by you throughout work. - Solidarity: pensions are paid to old men from assignments nowadays the operating. For persons of the liberal professions, handicraftsmen and small-sized businessmen monthly payments in a pension fund make 16,35%. The majority of hired workers pay as much, but a half for them is deducted by the employer. The pension in France makes 50% of an average salary for the last 11 labor years. But there is such concept, as the minimum and maximum state pension. For today the minimum pension about 6,000 euros or 5,000 dollars a year, maximum is twice more.
3. Responsibility insurance
The most developed insurance of responsibility is the motor vehicle liability.
Also branch of insurance of responsibility treat:
· international policy of a motor vehicle liability
· insurance of a civil liability of owners of aircrafts
· insurance of a civil liability of carriers
· insurance of responsibility of vendors of goods
· insurance of professional responsibility, in particular customs brokers, legal consultants and law firms, private notaries, auditors, and other types of business activity
· other types of insurance of responsibility.
|Category: Insurance history in the different countries of the world | Added by: Chance23 (20.04.2014)